Gravity & The Expansion Of Space © (18 June 2015)

The expansion of space causes the effect known as gravity. Space is expanding from every point in space which concurs with my hypothesis that every point in space is at the center of it’s own universe. I dare hypothesize that the “Multiverse” is this centered expansion of space which is occurring at every point in space. These hypotheses agree and support my hypothesis that the displacement vector of gravity is repulsive in nature and is not attractive. See “The Laws Of Motion In Space” below.

Cross Reference: A Focus On Gravity

The Astrophysical Journal

(Credit: Pierre J. Hébert / Blogger)

Laws Of Motion In Space

Hypotheses re: Newton’s laws of motion

Sir Isaac Newton observed an apple falling to the earth from a tree. He intuitively thought that the mass of the earth attracted the apple and that the same displacement acted on the moon and planets. Sir Newton said that he described gravity but did not explain the fundamental nature of gravity, leaving open the possibility for more research in this field. At that time neither the expansion of space (Hubble) nor the warp-age of space (Einstein) was known. Einstein himself wavered concerning the orientation or direction of the displacement vector of gravity (repulsive or attractive). He shifted the focus of the study of gravity from the mass to the warped space surrounding a mass. Warped space should not be confused with the dynamics of spacetime within which warped space acts. In the analogy of the trampoline and bowling ball, the trampoline is spacetime and the depression in the fabric near the bowling ball is warped space. In the posts of A Focus On Gravity I hypothesize that the expansion of space causes the effect known as gravity. The calculations of the resulting displacement, gravity, are exactly what Newton formulated and Einstein refined. It just so happens that the force is simply the other way around. The displacement vector of gravity is not attractive. The displacement vector of gravity is repulsive (away from space, & toward the mass). The 180° change in direction of the displacement vector of gravity from attractive to repulsive is a discrete global symmetry and does not affect any established calculations.

Matter is obviously physically connected to gravity and therefore physically connected to space. I want to explore the relationship between the expansion of space, which causes gravity, and Newton’s laws of motion.

Matter exists in the dynamically expanding environment of space. Space is not a static environment. The expansion of space is isotropic and occurs from every point in empty space. It becomes an-isotropic (warped space) in the area of space where matter exists. This an-isotropic condition is the effect known as gravity.
How does this dynamic expansion of space and the physical connection between matter and space apply to Newton’s laws of motion?
The physical engagement of matter with space and the movement of matter through the dynamic environment of expanding space relative to Newton’s laws of motion need to be explored.


Red: Newton’s laws of motion

Green: Hypothesis

1) Newton’s first law of motion – sometimes referred to as the law of inertia is stated as follows: An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.

In the context of expanding space an isolated object stays at rest because it is being acted upon by the displacement of expanding space equally in all directions. In space an isolated object in motion stays in motion because the warp field umbra of the object spends less time in the expanding space in the direction of travel than in the expanded space at the “rear”. The displacement of expanded space at the “rear” overcomes the displacement of expanding space at the “front” and moves the object smoothly with a balanced force and without acceleration. An unbalanced thrust is needed to change the motion. This is due to single body warp-age of the expanding geometry of spacetime. The following link demonstrates how it could be possible to travel faster than the speed of light using expanding space. However, a more realistic expectation is for the system to merely approach the speed of light.


IXS Enterprise warp ship

Science Alert: NASA’s EM Drive Passes Peer Review

NASA Eagle Works Laboratories: EM Drive PDF Download

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The still image below illustrating the single body warp-age of spacetime has to be viewed with the concept in mind that this still image depicts the motion, from left to right, of an object (not seen) at the center of the “doughnut”. The large area is at the “rear” and the small area is at the “front” of the imaginary moving object.


In the center of the single body warp-age (doughnut) is where the warp field umbra of the object interacts with the dynamically expanding motion of space-time. In the image the grid lines are not static but are expanding in three dimensions from every point in space. The warp-age (doughnut) is moving with the object and it’s warp field umbra interacts with spacetime.


2) Newton’s second law of motion can be formally stated as follows: The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.

When two objects are in the vicinity of each other the deepening gravitational warp field umbra of each object interact. This interaction between the warp fields causes acceleration of the objects toward each other. (i.e. there is less and less expanding space between the objects)

A feather and a hammer in a vacuum accelerate toward the Moon at the same rate (Apollo 15: “…Galileo was right!”) because they extract energy, proportional to their mass, from the expansion of space to accelerate them (equivalence principal). More mass, more energy for the displacement of acceleration and less mass less displacement energy. Both the feather and the hammer are in the same environment of expanding space-time.

3) Formally stated, Newton’s third law is: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The statement means that in every interaction, there is a pair of forces acting on the two interacting objects. The size of the force on the first object equals the size of the force on the second object.

This law of motion is required to overcome the isotropic force produced by the expansion of space. The Higgs Boson (Graviton?) /Field of force in the expanding space provides an explanation for the equal and opposite reaction required for the pair of displacements acting on two interacting objects. The Higgs Boson/Field gives sub-atomic/elementary particles their mass. This intimate relationship between the Higgs Boson/Field and sub-atomic particles suggests the possibility that the Higgs Boson could be the much sought after Graviton .



Richard Feynman lecture on the fundamental nature of gravity